Financing

Sufficiency and Allocation

1. Governments should ensure adequate funding for Public Service Broadcasting, but without compromising the independence of the institution.

2. Public Service Broadcasting should seek diversified funding to an extent, which reflects the increasingly competitive environment and achieves financial autonomy. The different kinds of revenue .must be well balanced in order to avoid dependence on only one or two sources.

3. Funding sourced should be spent with prudence and probity. Any disposition of public funds should always be within the mandate of the network and should be for the protection of its reputation.

4. Financing is not a one-stop gap measure for a particular year or a package of programmes. It must be sourced such that Public Service Broadcasting grow and manage the funds to achieve financial sustainability.

5. Funding should take into account arrangements to finance the migration of production infrastructure and equipment from analogue to digital.

Independence/Autonomy

1. The PSB authorities should exercise autonomy over decision-making and control over the generation of different resources of revenue and deployment of the same.'

2. PSBs should expand sources of funding to ensure financial autonomy and free it from any form of arbitrary interference and pressures.

3. A direct public grant from parliament or the state should incorporate a legislative assurance of non-interference in the operations of Public Service Broadcasting.

4. Direct funding from the general public supports the high level of independence and impartiality and enables nation­wide services at an inexpensive cost. The need to have wide support and understanding promotes continuous management efforts to respond to audience demands in all areas of its operation.'

5. To ensure financial independence, there should be strong accountable practices to protect resources, reinforce positivevalues,improve performance qualityand strengthen public support for Public Service Broadcasting.

Sources

1. Public Service Broadcasting should produce quality entertaining educational programmes that can be sponsored, funded, sold to other stations and even exported.

2. Public Service Broadcasting may seek a yearly budget allocation from parliament.

3. Public Service Broadcasting can propose a license fee or a general charge on users or special taxes, which could go directly to PSBs.

4. Financing can be sourced through a system of direct funding such as through a levy on the electricity bill, or sales of computers, radio and TV sets, etc.

5. A source of financing can be generated through commercial revenues in the form of advertising, joint operation, marketing and merchandising, leasing facilities and infrastructure and sponsorship.

6. Financing can be sourced from other public grants such as the regional bodies, NGOs', foundations and individual donations. Public Service Broadcasting must ensure that these grants are granted in a manner that protects the public service broadcasting independence.

7. Public Service Broadcasting can tap new technology such as e-commerce services to generate funds.

8. Public Service Broadcasting can offer training services and facilities to generate funds.

REFERENCES

AIBD/FES/NIMC in-country seminar on Public Service Broadcasting, (2002) Proceedings Report, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 9-10 December.

2 International Conference on Public Service Broadcasting, (2006) Lecture of Oshima, T., Funding a public broadcaster through receiving fees: Pros and cons, Hongkong, 21 June.